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Eurasian Academy Of Sciences Social Sciences JournalYl:2022 Say: 41 Alan: Hukuk

Emel TERECE
YARGI KARARLARINDA MLKYET HAKKI
 
1789 Fransz nsan ve Yurtta Haklar Bildirgesi'nin ikinci maddesinde insann doal ve zaman amna uramayan haklar tabiri ile kendisine yer bulan, mlkiyet hakk, szlk anlam asndan, belli bir nesne, tanmaz ya da tanr mal zerinde sahibine tasarruf etme, yararlanma ve kullanma yetkileri veren bir haktr. Mlkiyet hakk, tarihte stnde olduka fazla tartmalarn meydana geldii konular arasndadr. nk tarih boyunca mlkiyet kavram ve mlkiyet hakknn kapsam ve niteliine ynelik dnceler, dnemlere, toplumlara, kiilere, ideolojik ve felsefi bak alarna ve devlet sistemlerine gre farkllklar gstermitir. Trkiyede de1961 ve 1982 Anayasalarna gre mlkiyet hakk temel bir hak olarak dzenlenmitir. Ne var ki sz konusu anayasalar mlkiyet hakknn hukuki muhtevas, konusu ve nitelii ynnde herhangi bir hkme sahip deildir. Anayasa Mahkemesi mlkiyet hakkn ayni ve temel bir hak eklinde vasflandrrken mlkiyet hakknn maddi ve gayri maddi mallar zerinde tasarruf, yararlanma ve kullanma yetkileri verdiini kabul etmektedir. Avrupa nsan Haklar Szlemesi Ek 1 Nolu Protokoln 1. Maddesinde mlkiyet hakk dzenlenmitir. Sz konusu dzenlemeye gre, hakkn garantisi, bu hakkn hangi durumlarda kstlanabilecei, bir dier ifadeyle hangi hallerde bu hakkn ihlalinin mazur grlebilecei ngrlmtr. Anayasa Mahkemesi de son dnemde verdii bireysel bavuru kararlarnda Avrupa nsan Haklar Mahkemesi kararlarnn etkisi altnda kalmtr. Aratrma kapsamnda aktarmaya allan istatistikler, Trkiyenin Avrupa nsan Haklar Mahkemesi'nin mlkiyet hakk ihlalleriyle ilgili kararlarnda ne yazk ki st sralarda yer aldn gstermektedir. hukuk ve nsan haklar hukukunda yer alan insan haklar davalar sz konusu olduu zaman, bilhassa bireysel bavuru yollarnn kullanlmasnda Anayasa Mahkemesi ve kamu kurumlarna kayda deer sorumluluklar dmektedir. Bu noktada insan haklar ve temel hak ve zgrlklerin korunmasna ilikin Anayasa Mahkemesi tarafndan tatmin edici bir yarglama yaplmas paralelinde btn yarg mercilerine klavuzluk edecek bir itihat tesis edilmesi ok nem tamaktadr. Bu aamada temel hak ve zgrlkler ve kamu otoritelerinin ve adaletin doru ynetimi konusunda farkndaln artrlmas, temel hak ve zgrlklerin korunmas balamnda karnenin kalc olarak revize edilmesinin nemli bir yoludur.

Anahtar Kelimeler: mlkiyet, Mlkiyet Hakk, Anayasa Mahkemesi, Avrupa nsan Haklar Mahkemesi


THE RIGHT TO PROPERTY IN JURISDICTIONS
 
The right to property, which was included in the second article of the 1789 French Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen with the expression "the natural and timeless rights of man", in terms of its dictionary meaning, is a right that gives its owner the power to dispose, benefit and use a certain object, immovable or movable property. The right to property is among the subjects on which there has been quite a lot of discussion in history. Because throughout history, the concept of property and the ideas about the scope and quality of property rights have differed according to periods, societies, individuals, ideological and philosophical perspectives and state systems. In Turkey, the right to property is regulated as a fundamental right according to the 1961 and 1982 Constitutions. However, the mentioned constitutions do not have any provision regarding the legal content, subject and nature of the property right. While the Constitutional Court characterizes the right to property as a real and fundamental right, it accepts that the right to property gives the right to dispose, benefit and use over tangible and intangible goods. The right to property is regulated in Article 1 of Protocol No. 1 to the European Convention on Human Rights. According to the regulation in question, it is stipulated that the right is guaranteed, in which cases this right can be restricted, in other words, in which situations the violation of this right can be justified. The Constitutional Court has also been under the influence of the decisions of the European Court of Human Rights in its recent individual application decisions. The statistics tried to convey within the scope of the research show that Turkey unfortunately ranks high in the decisions of the European Court of Human Rights on property rights violations. When it comes to human rights cases in domestic and human rights law, significant responsibilities fall on the Constitutional Court and public institutions, especially in the use of individual remedies. At this point, it is very important to establish a jurisprudence that will guide all judicial authorities in parallel with a satisfactory trial by the Constitutional Court regarding the protection of human rights and fundamental rights and freedoms. At this stage, raising awareness on fundamental rights and freedoms and the correct management of public authorities and justice is an important way of permanently revising the scorecard in the context of protecting fundamental rights and freedoms.

Keywords: Property, Property Rights, Constitutional Court, European Court of Human Rights.


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