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Eurasian Academy Of Sciences Social Sciences JournalYl:2021 Say: 35 Alan: Sanat Tarihi ve Arkeoloji

Hlya KALYONCU
GRSEL SANATLARDA ESK STANBUL YAAMININ BERBERLK MESLE VE BERBERLERN KULLANIM MALZEMELER
 
Osmanlda erken dnemlerde halik (hallak) ve ser-tera olarak tanmlanan, erkeklerin sa ve sakallarn kesen esnafa, 16. yzyldan itibaren talyanca barbiere kelimesinden treyen berber denilmitir (Aksu, 1996:1). Kelime kken olarak, Latince barba (sakal) kelimesinden tremedir. Trkeye ise Farsadan gemitir. 1900'lerin banda ise bat etkisi ile berber yerine perukr tanmlamas kullanlmaya balanm, ancak Cumhuriyet dneminde itibaren tmyle berber kelimesinin kullanm benimsenmitir (Anonim, 1994:155). Osmanlda dkkn sahibi olan berberler ve seyyar berberler olmak zere iki ksma ayrlan berber esnafnn temel grevleri arasnda, salarn ve sakallarn kesimi ve bakm yannda, snnet, ie ekme, hacamat tedavisi, diilik (Grbz, 2012:233), slk tedavisi, kellik ve bit tedavileri ve cilt hastalklar iin merhem hazrlama gibi tedavi amal ilemler de vardr (Kou, 2002:49) (In, 2013:196). Ahilik geleneinden gelen rf ve adetler temelinde hizmet veren berber esnafna ait berber nl ve havlusu, sakal tara, berber aynas, ustura kesesi, ustura, snnet mili gibi ara ve gereler ise berberlerin kullanm malzemeleridir ve Osmanl-Trk kltr tarihinin de nemli maddi kltr miraslar arasnda yer alrlar. Saray koleksiyonlarndan ve halk berber dkknlarndan gnmze ulaan bu malzemelerden rneklerin byk ounluu, en nadide iplikler, kadifeler, mcevherler kullanlarak retilmilerdir ve gnmzde farkl mzelerimizin koleksiyonlarnda yer almaktadrlar. Bu almada, Osmanlnn toplumsal ve sosyo-kltrel yaamnda nemli bir yeri olan berberlik meslei, Trk resim sanatnda grntlenen sahneleri ile ve sanat tarihi disiplini ierisinde irdelenmeye allm ve bu meslein icrasnda kullanlan malzemeler, ilevsellik zellikleri ve form ve bezemeleri balamnda, sanatsal nitelikleri ile deerlendirilmeye allmtr.

Anahtar Kelimeler: Osmanl, Berberlik, Berber, Kltr, Malzeme


BARBERING PROFESSION IN OLD ISTANBUL LIFE WITHIN VISUAL ARTS AND THE MATERIALS USED BY BARBERS
 
In early period of the Ottoman Empire, the craftsman who was defined as halik (hallak) and ser-tera and used to cut mens hair and beard has been called berber (meaning of barber in Turkish) which derives from barbiere word, since the 16th century (Aksu, 1996:1). The word actually originates from barba (beard) in Latin. On the other hand, it passed to Turkish from Persian. Even though perukr was used instead of berber under the western influence at the beginning of the the 20th century, the use of berber word was completely adopted in Republic period (Anonymous, 1994:155). Main duties of the barbers who were divided into two groups as the barbers having shop, and mobile barbers were circumcision and the treatment-purpose processes such as cupping, blood letting, dentistry (Grbz, 2012:233), leech therapy, and preparing ointment for baldness and louse therapies and skin diseases as well as haircut and beard shaving (Kou, 2002:49) (In, 2013:196). The barbers who used to provide service based on the manners and customs originating from Ahi community were using the tools and materials such as barbers apron and towel, beard comb, barbers mirror, razor pouch, razor and circumcision shaft. These tools and materials are among the substantial material cultural heritage of the Ottoman-Turkish cultural history. Most of such materials that came from the palace collections and public barbershops and have survived until now were made of the rarest threads, velvets and jewels. Besides, they were included in the collections of different museums. In this study, it was aimed to discuss the barbering profession which was significant in social and socio-cultural life of the Ottomans, with the examples from Turkish painting art and within the art history discipline. Furthermore, it was targeted to evaluate the materials used to perform this profession, together with their artistic features in the context of functional characteristics, form and adornment.

Keywords: Ottoman, Berberi, Barbering, Culture, Material


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