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Eurasian Academy Of Sciences Social Sciences JournalYl:2018 Say: 20 Alan: Tarih

Mehmet Sedat Erkan
II. DNYA SAVAI SONRASI TRKYEYE ABD ASKER YARDIMININ BALAMASI
 
II. Dnya Sava sonras Avrupada ve dnyada byk deiiklikler oldu. ki kutuplu yeni bir dnya dzeni ortaya kt. Savatan galip kan devletler safnda olan ve yaylmac emellerinden vazgemeyen Sovyet Sosyalist Cumhuriyetler Birlii ( SSCB), 17 Aralk 1925 tarihli Trk-Sovyet Dostluk ve Saldrmazlk Antlamasnn sava esnasnda meydana gelen deiikliklere ve gnn artlarna uymadn ileri srerek, 7 Haziran 1945 tarihinde Kars ve Ardahan vilayetlerinin kendisine verilmesini ayrca Sovyet kuvvetlerine Boazlarda s verilmesini istedi. 1945 ve 1946 yllar Trk-SSCB arasnda gerginlik ve nota teatisi ile geti. SSCBnin 8 Austos 1946 tarihli Boazlar hakkndaki ikinci notasn Trkiye 22 Austos 1946 tarihinde, 25 Eyll 1946 tarihindeki Rus notasn yine ABD ve ngiltereyi bilgilendirerek 18 Ekim 1946 tarihinde reddetti. Olduka uzun olan, ayn zamanda nazik ve saygl bir slupla kaleme alnan Trk notasnda Sovyetler Birliince ileri srlen sebepler teker teker incelenerek rtlmt. Stalin nderliindeki Sovyetler Birliinin Trkiyeden toprak talebinde bulunmas ve Boazlar kontrol etmek istemesi, Trkiyeyi Sovyet emperyalizmine kar gvenliini salama endiesi yaratmt. Trkiye, II. Dnya Savann bitiminde olaan duruma dnmek, sava iinde genileyen ve kalabalklaan ordunun bir blmn terhis etmek, milli ekonomisini gelitirmek isteindeydi. Ancak Rusya ile olan gerginlik buna izin vermedi. SSCBnin scak denizlere inme niyetini aka gstermesi zerine, Trkiyenin de yer ald Ortadou blgesindeki gelimeleri deerlendiren ABD, kendi milli menfaatleri gerei de ngilterenin blgede brakt boluu doldurmaya karar verdi. 3 mart 1947 tarihinde Truman Doktrini akland. Bakan Truman Amerikan Kongresine 12 Mart 1947 gn gnderdii mesajnda, Trkiye ve Yunanistana 400 milyon dolarlk askeri yardm yaplmas iin kendisine yetki verilmesini istedi. ABD tarafndan Trkiyeye yaplacak yardmn ekli iin Trk hkmeti ile Birleik Devletler Hkmeti arasnda 12 Temmuz 1947 tarihinde Ankarada Trkiyeye Yaplacak yardm hakknda Anlama yapld. Trkiyeye askeri yardm konusu ile ilgili gelen ve Trk Silahl Kuvvetlerinin ayrntl analiz edildii gizli gizlilik dereceli rapor General Oliver bakanlndaki aratrma gurubu tarafndan hazrland ve bu rapor erevesinde yardmlar balad. Bu raporda , Trk Askerinin lm gze alarak vatann her artta koruma azim ve iradesine sahip ve iyi eitimli ve ok disiplinli olmasna ramen; eski model silah, ara ve vastalarla, hayvanl birliklere sahip olmas, hareket kabiliyetinin ok az oluu, bilhassa yetersiz deniz ve hava gc nedenleriyle, olas bir Sovyet Taarruzuna uzun mddet dayanma imknn olmad belirtiliyordu. Trkiye, II. Dnya savana katlan ordularla karlatrldnda silah ve teknoloji bakmndan geriydi. Doal olarak sava esnasnda dier lkeler teknolojinin btn imkanlarn harp silah ve vastalarn gelitirmek iin kullanmlar, yeni bulular da yapmlard. Modern ordulara gre Trk Ordusu byk lde eski model silahlara sahip piyade ve svari gcne dayanyordu. ABD askeri yardmnn balamas ile ABDye eitli kurs ve eitime giden subay, astsubay ve sivil askeri personelin bilgi, tecrbe ve askeri kltrleri artmtr. Personel, modern silah sistemleri ile tanm ve gelimi ordularn eitim ve retim standartlarn grmlerdir. Bu olumlu taraflarna ramen, askeri yardm anlamas erevesinde Trkiyeye verilen malzemenin byk bir blm II. Dnya Savanda kullanlm eski silah ve malzemelerdi. Verilen silah, ara, gere ve malzemelerin bakm ve onarm masraflar ve yalnz bu lkeden salanabilmesi yerli savunma sanayinin gelimesini de nledi ve tek lkeye baml hale getirdi. Bu husus Trkiyenin d ekonomik ve dolaysyla siyasal bamlln artran bir etken oldu. Yaplan ikili anlamalarn bilhassa 1947 anlamasnn ABD lehine 4nc maddesinin balaycl , ileriki yllarda Trkiyenin Kbrs sorununa mdahalesinde karsna kt. Milli menfaatler erevesinde hareket etmek isteyen Trk Hkmetlerinin siyasi ve askeri kararlarn olumsuz etkiledi. ABD ve baz mttefik lkelerce zaman zaman karlan engeller sebebiyle savunma ihtiyalarnn karlanmasnda dier lkelere baml halde olmann mahzurlarn gidermek iin Trkiyede modern bir savunma sanayiinin kurulmasna ihtiya dodu. Son yllarda gsterilen gayret ve abalarla milli savunma sanayinde da bamll azaltacak almalar yaplarak yerli silah sistemlerinin de retimine balanld.

Anahtar Kelimeler: II. Dnya Sava, ABD Askeri Yardm, Sovyet Emperyalizmi, Truman Doktrini, 12 Temmuz 1947 Trkiyeye Yardm Anlamas, General Oliver Raporu, Kbrs Sorunu


THE START OF US MILITARY AID TO TURKEY AFTER THE 2ND WORLD WAR
 
There have been big changes in Europe and the world after World War II. A new bipolar world emerged. Being on the side of the countries winning the war and not giving up its expansionist ambitions, The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics claimed that the Treaty of Turkish-Soviet Friendship and Non-Aggression which was signed on December 17, 1925, was not complying with the current changes and conditions during the war and on June 7, 1945 it asked the Kars and Ardahan provinces to be given to it and also a base in the Straits for the Soviet forces. 1945 and 1946 passed with the tension and exchanging diplomatic note between the Turkish-USSR. On August 22, 1946, Turkey refused the second note of USSR which was sent on August 8, 1946, about the Straits and again, informing US and Britain, on October 18, 1946 it refused Russian note that was sent on September 25, 1946. In the Turkish note, which was very long and at the same time written in a gentle and respectful style, the reasons that the Soviet Union put forward were examined one by one and refuted. Demanding land from Turkey and to control the Straits under the Stalin leadership of the Soviet Union, created concern about ensuring the security against Soviet imperialism for Turkey. Turkey wanted to return to its ordinary situation, to demobilize a part of the crowded army that wanted to expand in the war, to improve the national economy at the end of the World War II. However, the tension with Russia did not allow this. Because USSR clearly showed its intention to reach the warm seas, the United States decided to fill the void in the regions which England left; considering the situation in the Middle east. On March 3, 1947, the Truman Doctrine was announced. On March 12, 1947, President Truman, in his message asked the American Congress to grant him authorization to allow Greece and Turkey $ 400 million for military assistance. For the shape of the US aid to Turkey, on July 12, 1947, Agreement on Assistance to Turkey was made in Ankara between and the Turkish government the Government of the United States. A secret and highly classified report was prepared by a research group headed by General Oliver related to military aid and the Turkish Armed Forces and the aid began in the framework of the report. In this report it was stated that despite the fact that Turkish soldiers were well-trained and disciplined with patience and willing to protect their land under all circumstances risking death, there was no possibility of sustaining power for a possible Soviet Attack for a long time with the old model weapons, vehicles and cavalry also having very little mobility, especially due to inadequate sea and air forces. Turkey, compared to the armies participating in the World War II, kept behind in terms of weapons and technology. Naturally, other countries used all the possibilities of technology to develop weapons and vehicles, and made new discoveries during the war. Compared to the modern armies, mostly the Turkish army was based on infantry and cavalry with old model weapons. With the beginning of US military aid, commissioned and noncommissioned officers and civilian military personnel who went US to take various courses training, increased their knowledge and military cultures. The staff met with modern weapon systems and saw the standard of education and training of advanced armies. Despite the positive side, a large part of supplied military aid to Turkey in the framework of this agreement were used old weapons and supplies in World War II. Because the costs of maintenance and repair of the given weapons, tools, and equipment supplied only from this country, it prevented the development of the domestic defense industry and made it dependent on a single country. This was a factor that raised issues of foreign economic and hence political dependence of Turkey. Binding of bilateral agreements, particularly the agreement 1947, article 4 of which was in favor of the US, confronted Turkeys interventions in the Cyprus problem in the coming years. They affected the political and military decisions of the Turkish governments adversely who wanted to move within the framework of national interests. Because US and its allies created difficulties from time to time, Turkey needed to establish a modern defense industry in order to eliminate the drawback of being dependent on other countries to meet its defense needs. In recent years, efforts have been made to reduce dependence on foreign sources in the national defense industry and the production of domestic weapons systems has been started.

Keywords: Second World War, US Military Aid, Sovyet Imperialism, Truman Doctrine, Agreement On Assistance To Turkey ( On July 12, 1947 ) , General Oliver Report, Cyprus Problem


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