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Eurasian Academy Of Sciences Social Sciences JournalYl:2016 Say: 11 Alan: Politika Bilimi

Kksal AHN, Vedat TEMEL
1921 ve 1924 ANAYASALARINDA HUKUK DEVLET ve YARGI BAIMSIZLII: TARHSEL ve KURUMSAL BR ANALZ
 
Bu almadaki temel amacn; hukuk devleti ve bu ilkenin ayrlmaz unsurlar arasnda saylan kuvvetler ayrl, yarg bamszl ve hkimlik teminat gibi unsurlar asndan Trkiyede yaanan sreci cumhuriyetin kurulu evresinin anayasalar olarak kabul edilen 1921 ve 1924 Anayasalar balamnda somutlatrabilmek olduu sylenebilir. alma esas itibariyle bahsedilen ilkelerin bu iki anayasada ne lde vcut bulduu sorusu zerinde ykselmitir. Yine almada hukuk devletine dair kurucu nitelikte dzenlemeler balamnda bir ilerlemenin Osmanl dneminden itibaren yaanmakta olduu tezinden hareket edilmitir. Bahsedilen ama dorultusunda Osmanl Devleti'nin son dnemlerinde hz kazanan anayasaclk hareketlerinden balamak zere, 1961 Anayasas dnemine kadar olan periyotta Trkiye'de hukuk devleti ve yarg bamszl kavramlar balamnda yaanan anayasal gelimeler tarihsel sra ile ele alnm ve karlatrmal analizlere tabii tutulmutur. Betimleyici metodun takip edildii alma neticesinde ulalan balca sonular olarak ise; 19. asrdan itibaren Trk modernlemesi kapsamnda hukuk devleti ve yarg bamszlna ilikin de bir srecin yaanmaya balad, ancak bu srecin hem Osmanl hem de Cumhuriyetin kurulu evresinde elit siyasal kltrn iselletirilemeyen (ekli) bir unsuru grnmnde olduu ve bu durumun bir sonucu olarak da 1921 ve 1924 Anayasalar dneminde hukuk devleti ilkesinin daha ok teoride kald eklindeki hususlardan bahsedilebilir. 1924 Anayasas dnemindeki anayasal ve kurumsal dzenlemelere ramen uygulamadaki zayfln asl faktr olarak da; cumhuriyetin kurucu kadrolarnn tpk son dnem Osmanl elitleri gibi tekrar gl bir devlet oluturmak amac ve devletin bekas kaygsyla modernlemeci ve reformist bir kimlie brnm olmalar hususu tespit edilmitir.

Anahtar Kelimeler: Hukuk Devleti, Yarg Bamszl, 1921 Anayasas, 1924 Anayasas, Trkiye


STATE OF LAW AND JUDICIAL INDEPENDENCE IN 1921 AND 1924 CONSTITUTIONS: A HISTORICAL AND INSTITUTIONAL ANALYSIS
 
It could be stated that the main target of this study is to embody the current process in Turkey within the context of Constitution of 1921 and 1924 that are regarded as Constitutions on process of establishing the Republic , regarding some elements such as State of Law and its inseparable elements , like separation of Powers , judicial independence and tenure of judges. The study has mainly risen from the question of what extent these principles mentioned above has come into being in these two Constitutions .Nevertheless, in the context of foundational regulations regarding to state of law , the starting point is that a thesis of a progression has been happening since the Ottoman Period. In line with mentioned aim, as starting from the movements of constitutionalism that accelerated on the last periods of Ottoman Empire ,at the period until the Constitution of 1961, constitutional developments that happened under the common share of the concepts of state of law and judicial independence in Turkey have been approached chronologically and been subjected to comparative analyses.Primary consequences as a result of descriptive method are ; a process regarding state of law and judicial independence within the context of Turkish modernisation has been happening since the 19th century, yet this process is viewed as an element that is unable to be internalised of an elite politic culture of both Ottomans and first establishing years of Turkish Republics and as a result of this it can be said that the principle of state of law remained as a theory during the periods of Constitutions of 1921 and 1924. In spite of constitutional and institutional regulations during the Constitution of 1924,just like the elites at the last periods of Ottoman empire,the founders of Turkish republics identifying themselves as modernist and reformist elites with the aim of creating a powerful state and with the worry of Continuity of the state ,can be shown as the main factor of weakness in practice.

Keywords: State of Law ,Judicial Independence, Constitution of 1921 and Constitution of 1924, Turkey


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